A Stanford overview study of race, income, and enrollment.
Study Link: Race, income, and enrollment patterns in highly selective colleges, 1982-2004
Where a student attends college has become increasingly important in the last few decades. As education has grown significantly more important in the labor market, competition among students for access to the most selective colleges and universities has grown as well.
In this brief we examine patterns of enrollment, by race and family income, in the most selective colleges and universities. We also simulate racial and socioeconomic patterns of admission to selective colleges under several types of “race-blind” admissions policies, including policies like the Top Ten Percent admissions policy currently in use in Texas and a similar policy in California.
For the analyses in this study, we rely on data from three national longitudinal studies of students in the high school classes of 1982, 1992, and 2004.
NAEP statistical analysis from Stanford study.
Study: Most School Districts Have Achievement Gaps
That five-year period enabled researchers to focus on districts completing a decade of state and federal accountability initiatives designed to close academic gaps between white students and their black and Hispanic peers. Of the 2,500 school districts with a large enough sample of black students to measure their achievement gaps, Reardon and his colleagues found only one with no black-white gap: Detroit.
“Detroit is not the poster child for reducing the achievement gap,” Reardon said in an interview with Education Week. “The achievement gap is zero in Detroit largely because everyone’s doing really poorly, not because black students are doing particularly well.”
Several of the other districts with the lowest achievement gaps have similar profiles of high poverty and multiple attempts at education overhauls, suggesting their low achievement gaps come from lower performance overall.
Moreover, the researchers found some of the biggest black-white achievement gaps in the country—where black students lag their white peers by more than 1.5 full standard deviations, or four to five grade levels on the NAEP scale—in relatively prosperous university towns, including Berkeley, Calif. (home of University of California, Berkeley), and Evanston, Ill. (home of Northwestern University).
IES Statistical Analysis of NAEP reading assessment, circa 2009
Article Link: Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools
Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress July 2009
White students…had higher scores than Black students, on average, on all assessments. While the nationwide gaps in 2007 were narrower than in previous assessments at both grades 4 and 8 in mathematics and at grade 4 in reading, white students had average scores at least 26 points higher than Black students in each subject, on a 0-500 scale.
This report will use results from both the main NAEP and the long-term trend NAEP assessments to examine the Black-white achievement gaps, and changes in those gaps, at the national and state level.
Random PBS reported statistics on the Achievement Gap. Though we did not verify, they do list their sources.
Article: Fact Sheet: Outcomes for Young, Black Men | Tavis Smiley Reports | PBS
– On average, African American twelfth-grade students read at the same level as white
– The twelfth-grade reading scores of African American males were significantly lower than
those for men and women across every other racial and ethnic group.
– Only 14% of African American eighth graders score at or above the proficient level. These results reveal that millions of young people cannot understand or evaluate text, provide relevant details, or support inferences about the written documents they read.
AP for All is working as planned and increasing minority participation. Students benefit from AP classes even when they do not pass. AP classes are commonly the student’s first introduction to College-level Rigor.
Link: City’s AP exam passing rates show gains, especially for black and Hispanic students
The number of students taking at least one AP exam in 2016 rose by nearly 3,500 students citywide, and over 1,800 more students passed an AP exam in 2016 than in the previous year.
Black and Hispanic students saw the largest gains. Participation among black students increased by over 14 percent and the number of students passing at least one AP exam increased by 18 percent. Hispanic students increased both passing and participation rates by about 10 percent.
The increased participation and passing rates are part of a trend that started before Mayor Bill de Blasio took office, but the mayor has supported expanded access to AP classes during his tenure. Last September, de Blasio announced “AP for All,” a program designed to boost the number of AP classes in schools with an eye toward making sure low-income students and students of color have equal access to the college-level courses.
A 2015 report by the Center for New York City Affairs at the New School found that more than half the city’s high schools did not offer a single AP course in math and about half did not offer an AP course in science. Currently, approximately 370 of the city’s roughly 500 high schools offer at least one AP class, according to the city’s education department.